Safety, of course, aims to prevent accidents; safety aims to prevent intentional acts that could damage the nuclear power plant or result in the theft of nuclear materials; and safeguards are intended to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials for nuclear weapons purposes. The IAEA Nuclear Safety Fund (NSF) is another prominent initiative, in which India is an important partner. A fundamental issue that contributes to the complexity of a nuclear power system is its extremely long lifespan. Nuclear weapons security, as well as the security of military research involving nuclear materials, is generally handled by agencies other than those overseeing civil security, for a number of reasons, including secrecy.
The Federation of American Scientists has said that for the use of nuclear energy to expand significantly, nuclear facilities will need to be extremely safe from attacks that could release massive amounts of radioactivity into the community. This covers nuclear power plants and all other nuclear facilities, the transportation of nuclear materials, and the use and storage of nuclear materials for medical, energy, industrial and military uses. The extreme danger of radioactive material in power plants and nuclear technology itself is so well known that the United States government was forced (at the behest of the industry) to enact provisions that would protect the nuclear industry from bearing the full burden of inherently risky nuclear operations. One malfunction led to another, and then a series of others, until the core of the reactor itself began to melt, and even the world's most skilled nuclear engineers didn't know how to respond.
Sections 3 (c) and (e) of the Atomic Energy Act 1954, as revised, and Section 204 (b) (of the Energy Reorganization Act 1974) give the NRC the responsibility to ensure that peaceful uses of nuclear energy contribute to the utmost to common defense and security and national welfare, and. Many nations that use nuclear energy have specialized institutions that oversee and regulate nuclear safety. Since the reasons behind the culture of nuclear safety and the culture of nuclear safety differ (the difference between unintentional and intentional hazards), there will obviously be areas for discussion. Japan has been accused by authors such as journalist Yoichi Funabashi of having an aversion to facing the potential threat of nuclear emergencies.
Everyone involved must understand the importance of a culture of nuclear safety and security, and the benefits of harmonizing the two; and everyone must believe that the threat and danger to the safety of operations are real, credible and deserve attention. Nuclear power plants, civil research reactors, certain marine fuel facilities, uranium enrichment plants and fuel manufacturing plants are vulnerable to attacks that could lead to widespread radioactive contamination. Incidents such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster could have been prevented with stricter regulations on nuclear energy. The failure of multiple safety features in nuclear power plants has raised questions about the nation's engineering prowess.