Nuclear energy is a powerful source of energy, but it comes with its own set of safety precautions. To ensure the safety of those working with nuclear energy, as well as the public, it is important to understand the risks and take the necessary steps to mitigate them. This article will discuss the safety precautions for nuclear energy, including implementation of radiation protection and pollution control procedures, compliance with approved operating and maintenance procedures, and training and qualification programs in radiation protection. The main objective of nuclear power plant regulations is to ensure that there are no failures, but all possibilities must be considered.
If faults occur, they must be properly monitored. If those protections fail, systems must be in place to limit the consequences. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) closely monitors and regulates the construction and operation of these facilities, but accidents are still possible. The protection of critical infrastructure, such as nuclear power plants, is a requirement and a necessity for chemical facilities, the operation of nuclear reactors, and many other utility facilities.
It is important to note that a commercial-type power reactor cannot explode like a nuclear bomb because the fuel is not enriched more than about 5%. In response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, electric power companies in Japan have committed to strengthening safety assurance measures at their nuclear power plants by focusing on measures against tsunami. This includes an exercise that covered 147 nuclear plants in 15 EU countries, including Lithuania, plus 15 reactors in Ukraine and five in Switzerland. Knowledge management policies and practices should help create a supportive organizational culture that recognizes the value of nuclear knowledge and promotes effective processes to maintain it.
For low-lying sites, civil engineering and other measures are usually taken to make nuclear plants resistant to flooding. Nuclear reactor accidents have long been claimed to be the epitome of low-probability but high-consequence risks. Even if the containment structure surrounding all modern nuclear power plants were to break, as was the case with one of Fukushima's reactors, it is still very effective in preventing the escape of most of the radioactivity. The IAEA defines nuclear safety as the prevention and detection and response to theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear materials, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities.
Two government advisers have said that Japan's nuclear reactor safety review following the Fukushima disaster is based on erroneous criteria and that many people involved have conflicts of interest. Various earthquake safety measures are taken at all stages of nuclear power plant design and construction. Katsuhiko Ishibashi, professor of seismology at Kobe University, has said that the history of nuclear accidents in Japan is due to overconfidence in the plant's engineering. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the extraction and enrichment of radioactive minerals, the production of nuclear fuels, the transportation and use of fuel in the operation of nuclear power plants, the reprocessing of spent fuel to recover reusable materials for more fuel, and the nuclear waste storage. The World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) also provides guidance on cooperation in the nuclear power industry. Nuclear DKM practices can enhance and support traditional business functions and objectives such as human resource management, training, planning, operations, maintenance and more. It is essential that all those involved with nuclear energy understand these safety precautions in order to ensure a safe environment for everyone.