When it comes to protecting yourself and your family from nuclear energy, there are a few steps you can take. Insulating your windows and doors with aluminum foil is a great place to start. Bricks and mattresses can also provide additional protection against heat and radiation. Beta particles can travel a few meters, but they can be blocked by thin sheets of aluminum or lead, pieces of glass or plexiglass, or blocks of wood.
The aluminum foil should be 3 to 4 millimeters thick, while the lead should be about 3 centimeters thick to stop beta particles. However, the exact thickness depends on the radiation dose. Some particles will dissipate in the air. Beta particles are emitted during natural processes, but they are also used in some medical treatments, such as eye diseases.
Aluminum can stop all types of radiation from nuclear decay if it is thick enough. To maximize protection during a radiological emergency (a large release of radioactive material into the environment), it is important to understand the principles of radiation protection: time, distance and shielding. A few centimeters of lead is enough to block gamma rays, so a lead apron is used when doing an X-ray, but at least 3 meters of concrete are needed to stop them.