The 93 nuclear power plants in the United States are among the safest and most secure industrial facilities in the world. Nuclear power plants are among the safest and safest facilities in the world. However, accidents can occur that negatively affect people and the environment. To minimize the likelihood of an accident, IAEA helps Member States apply international safety standards to strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants.
Zani, The Effect of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident on Risk Perception, Antinuclear Behavioral Intentions, Attitude, Trust, Environmental Beliefs and Values, Environ. Based on those estimates, researchers say that about 1 to 2% of all deaths among workers in the nuclear industry can be attributed to radiation exposure. The primary safety concern has always been the possibility of an uncontrolled release of radioactive material, leading to contamination and consequent off-site radiation exposure. While this calculated frequency of core damage has been one of the main metrics for evaluating reactor safety, European safety authorities prefer a deterministic approach, focusing on the actual provision of backup hardware, although they also perform probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) for frequency of core damage, and require a 1 in 1 million core damage frequency for new designs.
In 1994, the Kakrapar nuclear power plant, near the west coast of India, was flooded due to heavy rains, along with the failure to control the landfill of an adjoining water pond, which flooded the equipment in the basement of the turbine building. As early as the late 1970s, the United Kingdom's Central Electricity Generation Board considered the possibility of a large, fully charged and fueled passenger aircraft being deliberately hijacked and crashed into a nuclear reactor. Analysis of the aftermath of next-generation reactors (SOARCA) showed that a serious accident at a United States nuclear power plant (PWR or BWR) would likely cause no immediate death, and that the risks of fatal cancer would be much lower than the overall risks of cancer. All workers were exposed to low doses of radiation as part of their work in the production of nuclear energy, the manufacture of nuclear weapons, the processing of nuclear fuel, or the research of nuclear reactors or weapons.
Those responsible for nuclear energy technology in the West dedicated extraordinary efforts to ensure that a fusion of the reactor core did not occur, since a fusion of the core was supposed to create a significant public danger and, if not contained, a tragic accident with likely multiple deaths. IAEA has a knowledge base on safety for aging and long-term operation of nuclear power plants (SKALTO) that aims to develop a framework for sharing information on aging management and long-term operation of nuclear power plants. Volcanic hazards are minimal for virtually all nuclear plants, but IAEA has developed a new Safety Guide in this regard. EDF's Blayais nuclear power plant in western France uses seawater for cooling and the plant itself is protected from storm surges by dams.
It contains suggestions to make nuclear safety stronger and more effective than before, without eliminating the responsibility of national agencies and governments. Parties' obligations are largely based on the principles contained in the IAEA Safety Fundamentals document The Safety of Nuclear Installations. Since the World Trade Center attacks in New York in 2001, there has been a growing concern about the consequences of a large aircraft being used to attack a nuclear facility for the purpose of releasing radioactive materials. .