Nuclear safety is a term used to describe the documentation developed by designers, licensees, or rights holders to demonstrate high standards of nuclear safety and radioactive waste management. This documentation, known as a nuclear safety case, is essential for ensuring the safe operation of a nuclear reactor. It encompasses multiple barriers and security features, such as a stable waste form to limit the rate of release, a waste package to provide containment, a buffer to protect the container, and geological barriers to isolate debris. A multifactorial safety case must also present multiple independent arguments to ensure safety, including presentation and analysis of scientific research, comprehensive detailed system modelling, and studies of natural analogs.
The safety case outcome defines the safe operational envelope of the plant or activity, identifying the limits and conditions that must be maintained to ensure nuclear safety. In the nuclear industry, safety depends on intelligent planning, proper design and backup systems, operational resilience, high-quality components, and a well-developed safety culture. At the end of the nuclear fuel cycle, it is necessary to ensure the safety of radioactive waste at all stages, including its final disposal. Specialized consultants are employed to ensure that the safety case documentation needed to support large-scale construction activities for nuclear new construction sites is robust, complete and meets rigorous regulatory expectations.
It is a requirement for all nuclear licensing sites and other facilities that pose a radiation release hazard to the public or workers to possess and maintain a valid safety case. This includes CRA's team of nuclear safety case specialists with experience in providing security and warranty services to customers in the UK's civil and defense nuclear sectors, as well as internationally. The development of a nuclear safety case requires an in-depth understanding of the risks associated with routine operations or potential accident scenarios. It must be comprehensive enough to justify the safe operation of a nuclear reactor. The safety case can range from a single document that justifies a relatively simple activity or modification to thousands of documents that present the entire safety assessment, supporting analysis and evidence.