What is nuclear criticality safety?

Nuclear criticality safety is a field of nuclear engineering dedicated to the prevention of nuclear and radiation accidents resulting from an unintentional accident. Principles · Calculations and Analysis · Burn Credit. Criticality safety refers to accident prevention and protection against an uncontrolled nuclear fission chain reaction or a serious accident. Nuclear criticality safety is the prevention of nuclear chain reactions in fissionable materials outside reactors.

This book presents the underlying principles of nuclear criticality safety theory together with descriptions of the main methods currently used and their applications in the plant. Exercises are provided at the end of each chapter to improve comprehension of the text. Nuclear criticality safety is the prevention of unwanted nuclear chain reactions in fissile materials through technical and administrative control measures. This Safety Guide provides guidance and recommendations on how to meet relevant requirements to ensure subcriticality when dealing with fissile material and for planning response to major accidents.

Guidance and recommendations apply to both regulatory bodies and operating organizations. The objectives of criticality safety are to prevent a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and to minimize the consequences of this if it occurs. The Safety Guide makes recommendations on how to ensure subcriticality in systems involving fissile materials during normal operation, anticipated operational events and, in the case of accident conditions, accidents within the design base, from initial design to commissioning, the operation and dismantling and disposal. Explore the many uses of nuclear science and their impact on energy, environment, health, food and more.

Specific areas of interest include research on static and transient configurations found in the nuclear fuel cycle, such as manufacturing, transportation, separation processing, and fuel storage. Initiated with support from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), participating students are encouraged to apply for an internship in LANL's Nuclear Criticality Safety Division. NCS Division activities are complemented by ongoing R%26D programs in software development and analytical methods, validation of nuclear data libraries and evaluation of reference experiments. Nuclear Criticality Safety is concerned with mitigating the consequences of a nuclear criticality accident.

The exchange of information on national programmes, the coordination of priorities of common interest, the development of resources and the provision of information are essential to advance the safety of criticality in nuclear science. A nuclear criticality accident is caused by operations involving fissile material and result in a sudden and potentially lethal release of radiation. Traditional criticality analyses assume that the fissile material is in its most reactive state, which is usually at its maximum enrichment, without irradiation. This program introduces the fundamentals and importance of nuclear criticality safety with respect to nuclear R%26D operations, exposing students to the discipline of criticality safety and helping prepare them for a future career in the field.

These controls, whether passive (physical), active (mechanical), or administrative (human), are implemented by inherently safe or fault-tolerant plant designs, or, if such designs are not feasible, by administrative controls such as operating procedures, work instructions, and other means to minimize possibility of significant process changes that could lead to a nuclear criticality accident. Specific areas of interest include (but are not limited to) investigations of static and transient configurations found in the nuclear fuel cycle. .