The Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) is a global initiative to curb nuclear terrorism around the world. It was first held in 2010 and has since been held every two years. The most recent summit was held in Seoul, South Korea, in March 2016. At the summit, world leaders from countries such as Britain, Canada, France, Italy, Argentina, Mexico, China, Japan, South Korea and India discussed how to address the risk of nuclear terrorism. The concrete results of the summit were presented in the Seoul Communiqué.
This document likely supports the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and International Criminal Police (Interpol) in nuclear safety. It also encourages the development of a culture of nuclear safety, the protection of radioactive materials and the fight against nuclear smuggling through forensic science and border controls. The Netherlands set several objectives for the summit, including reducing stockpiles of nuclear materials, improving the safety of nuclear and radioactive sources, increasing coordination with the nuclear industry and improving international cooperation. The summit also seeks to maintain an international network of government officials and experts who have supported the Summit process and to incorporate the wider community of States.
At the summit, countries made commitments to excellence in nuclear safety, to protect the entire EMU and plutonium against design-based threats, and support for the latest revision of the IAEA recommendation on the physical protection of nuclear materials. These promises are known as “gifts from home” and include actions such as repatriating materials usable in weapons, conducting training for nuclear security personnel, updating national laws and regulations, and taking measures to combat illicit trafficking. The Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) is another multilateral forum that deals with nuclear safety. The U. S.
Government Accountability Office (GAO) has complained that U. agencies were vague in the criteria used to judge when foreign nuclear sites can ultimately be considered safe. The objective of the Nuclear Security Summit is to improve global nuclear security through increased cooperation and the conclusion of concrete agreements aimed at better securing nuclear materials and facilities. This would help protect against any sustained efforts by terrorist groups to access nuclear materials.